Low-Impact / Treatment Method Low-Impact Treatment Method

High Treatment / Success Rate High Treatment Success Rate

95% of Ovarian Cysts / Do Not Require Surgery 95% of Ovarian Cysts Do Not Require Surgery

What Is an Ovarian Cyst?

In most cases, an ovarian cyst is a negligible variation from its proper function (follicle growth from the 10th to 13th day of the menstrual cycle, ovulation on the 14th day – spontaneous bursting and healing of the corpus luteum created this way).

In some cases, the follicle does not burst and persists, or bursts and then fills up again with liquid. In most cases, the cyst bursts spontaneously. The cyst does not necessarily cause difficulties, or it can cause a sensation of pressure or pain.


The diagnostics of ovarian cysts is not very complicated thanks to ultrasonic instruments available in almost all gynaecological offices. Ultrasound is sufficient and the use of more complex examination methods (magnetic resonance, tomography) is not necessary.

Cyst Types

Functional cysts (follicle cysts and corpus luteum cysts). These are the most frequent cysts, with a diameter of 4-9 cm, rarely more. They are called “water cysts” as they only contain fluid. If they burst, the fluid irritates the peritoneum, causing discomfort or pain on a short-term basis.

Endometrial cysts are filled with old blood caused by atypical occurrence of a small part of the endometrium that menstruates to the cyst regularly. This causes cyst tension and pain during the period. The cyst does not burst, just grows in size during the period.
Endometriosis is an auto-immune disease, where the endometrial cyst is a consequence of this disease. Removal of the cyst alleviates the difficulties, but does not treat the immunity disorder. Therefore the ovarian cysts can refill, or new cysts can appear after the removal.

Dermoid cysts are filled with developmentally mature, solid tissues that do not belong in the ovary (sebum, hair).

Cancerous cysts are rare and they are caused by uncontrolled growth of the affected tissue.

Cyst Removal

Therapy for functional, smooth-walled cysts:

  1. Waiting (at the discretion of the examining gynaecologist): Taking into account the age and clinical conditions (pains, pressure in the lower abdomen).
  2. Ovarian cyst puncture: This is a very simple outpatient procedure that can be carried out with the use of analgesics and local anaesthesia at the point of puncture – the vagina. The extracted fluid can be subjected to cytological examination. Once the cyst fluid is extracted, the cyst walls adhere to one another and scar over, just like the follicle after ovulation. Only in exceptional cases does the cyst fill again with fluid.
  3. Laparoscopic removal of functional cysts is undesirable. In addition to the risks of surgery, the ovary diminishes, impairing its functionality and consequently its activity (difficulty in conception, premature onset of menopause).

Therapy for endometrial cysts

  1. Waiting: Pain during the period can be addressed by analgesics or using contraceptives uninterruptedly, thus blocking menstruation.
  2. Puncture: The cyst puncture is as simple as with the functional cyst puncture. It is, however, more difficult to extract the content using a thin needle, which can only be done in short-term cysts. In most cases, the content is very thick and special techniques and tools are necessary to extract and flush the ovarian cyst. Whereas this does not remove the endometrium particle that caused the occurrence of blood in the cyst, the cyst is likely to return without further provisions.
    In order to reduce the risk of refilling of the cyst with blood, it is advisable to block the ovary function by contraceptives or other drugs that block the menstrual cycle on a long-term basis.
  3. Cyst sclerotisation: The inner cyst epithelium can be flushed by special solutions that destroy the endometrium particle and prevent the cyst’s persistence. This procedure requires much experience.
  4. Laparoscopic cyst removal: This is currently the dominant method. It is encumbered by surgery risks and a longer recovery period compared to puncture and sclerotisation. If the endometrium particle that caused the cyst is not removed, the cyst is likely to return. Whereas the basic immunity disorder is not affected, further cysts can develop.
    The biggest drawback of surgical removal is the fact that the ovary is reduced in size by approximately 1/3, with consequent impairment in its reproductive and hormonal functions. This decrease in function has been proven by many studies.

Therapy for cysts suspected to be of cancerous origin is strictly surgical.



E-mail address: sobek@fertimed.cz
Telephone number: (+420) 585 224 128
WWW: fertimed.cz/en

Fertimed is a fertility treatment centre with locations in Olomouc and Polanka nad Odrou. We take pride in having had several firsts in the Czech Republic, as well as having contributed to some of the world’s leading medical journals.

We meet numerous women in our offices whose ovary function has become worse after baseless cyst surgery (premature malfunction or premature onset of menopause), and therefore we devote a great deal of time and effort to conservative (non-surgical) cyst removal.

Should you need more information, contact us